The start of any diet is exciting.
You feel motivated by the thought of change, the idea that through the simple acts of eating and exercising you can change your body. The first few weeks and months usually go well too;
However, slowly but surely the weight loss slows down, your motivation wanes and your feelings of hunger never seem to go away. Next thing you know you’re binging every weekend, putting away pizza, chocolate and popcorn like it’s being discontinued.
Then, bam, you wake up one morning and realise you’re not calorie deficit is no longer a calorie deficit and you’ve gained back all the weight you lost and more.
In a nutshell, it’s because of something called body weight set point.
Bodyweight set point means your body operates independently of your wishes, storing excess calories as fat whenever possible to protect itself from periods of famine or hunger.
You see, your body doesn’t want you to lose weight.
Generally speaking, it’s happy how it is.
Obviously, your body doesn’t need to behaviour in this ‘survival mode’ anymore, food is widely available, and the likelihood of severe hunger or famine is exceedingly low. However, it doesn’t realise this, and not only will it store fat when given the chance it will also try and stop you from losing it.
You’ve probably noticed this…
How every time you try and lose weight things start well but slow down over time and often end up with you back where you started.
This is your set point at work.
When you eat in a calorie deficit and start losing weight a series of metabolic changes occur that work in direct opposition to your efforts. Your body actively makes weight loss more difficult by;
The increased hunger comes from a change in the hormones Leptin (makes you feel full) and Ghrelin (makes you feel hungry) which are responsible for controlling your appetite. (3)
Usually, these 2 hormones work together to help you control your calorie intake and maintain your weight. (4) However, when you eat in a calorie deficit your body reduces the production of Leptin.
This results in the oh so familiar feelings of hunger, and the cravings you always get when trying to lose fat.
The second part of your body’s response is to reduce something called NEAT.
NEAT stands for non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and is the fancy way of saying everything you do that isn’t planned exercise, sports, sleeping or eating. It essentially means you do less of all the little things you might normally do when not losing fat.
For most people 2 of the biggest changes are;
Although it doesn’t seem like much, this reduction in NEAT means you burn fewer calories, can eat less food and makes fat loss more difficult.
At the heart of your body’s attempts to maintain it’s set point is a process called adaptive thermogenesis.
This is the decrease in the number of calories you burn everyday beyond what is expected from the change in your body weight and reduction in activity that is typically associated with being in a calorie deficit. (5)
In other words, as you diet your daily calorie needs will decrease, often by a large amount to the point that you’re not in a calorie deficit at all. The longer you’re in a calorie deficit and the bigger the deficit is, the worse this effect. (6)
All this adds up to mean the longer you diet and stay in a calorie deficit the harder your body makes it for you by manipulating a variety of factors;
The longer you’re in a calorie deficit and the larger your deficit is, the worse these effects are. This means over time maintaining a calorie deficit becomes more and more difficult.
Does this mean you can’t successfully lose fat?
Of course not.
What it means is that you need to manage these side effects by strategically spending time out of a calorie deficit and at calorie maintenance.
This is where refeeds come in.
A refeed is a planned increase in calories and carbohydrates used when dieting to negate some of the downsides of eating in a calorie deficit.
They do this in 3 main ways;
When it comes to refeeding, you want to prioritise a high carbohydrate intake. This is because the primary goal of a refeed is to raise Leptin levels and research shows that carbohydrate is far superior in comparison to fat at doing this. (7, 8)
Eating a high carb intake also has the additional benefit of increasing glycogen stores in your muscles and fuelling your workout performance. (9)
It’s also preferable to refeed on a training day as the increase in muscle glycogen can then be put to good use. However, you could also schedule the refeed to coincide with a day you know you’re going to eat more.
This way you can use your refeed strategically to either get a little training boost or be able to eat more whilst sticking to your diet.
When it comes to refeed days the first step is to determine how often you should do it. The answer to this question is based on your current situation. This because the leaner you are and the longer you’ve been in a calorie deficit the more likely you are to be suffering from metabolic adaptation. (32)
The guidelines are as follows;
To set yourself up for the refeed you want to raise your calories to between your maintenance and 250 over with following macros:
The day after you refeed you can expect to see a temporary increase in body weight due to the increase in food intake, muscle glycogen and water weight. Don’t panic, it’s not weight gain. This is normal and once you return to your normal diet it will go away again.
A normal side effect of dieting is a reduction in daily energy expenditure and the slowing of weight loss.
As a result, many people think they can’t lose weight and give up on their goals. However, this doesn’t have to be the case.
By using strategic refeed days you can help to minimise the impact of these effects and sustain weight loss.
Setup your refeed in 3 simple steps;